YHWH - Yahweh
Urim Thummim - Maat vs. Wisdom vs. Asherah vs. Sophia - Hebrew Language - Egypt Temple vs. Israel Temple - Sacrifice
In order to understand YHWH or Yahweh you must first understand exactly what the Hebrew language is and what it is not.
The original Old Testament/Torah was composed in Biblical
Hebrew, also called Classical Hebrew, which
is the archaic
form of the Hebrew language in which the Hebrew Bible which is the Old Testament/Torah were written. Most people do
not know what archaic Hebrew is, so lets get this out of the way first.
So what is the archaic Hebrew language?
Archaic Biblical Hebrew
is a now extinct language used in Biblical times from the 12th to the 9th
century BCE. Archaic
Hebrew is also called Old Hebrew or Paleo-Hebrew. (Paleo means the earliest use of the language.)
So the question is what is Paleo-Hebrew? The
Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is identical to the Phoenician alphabet.
used as the main vehicle for writing the Hebrew language by the Israelites, both Jews and Samaritans.
The common ancestor of Hebrew and Phoenician
is the Canaanite alphabet system, and the first alphabet distinct
Egyptian. Archaic Biblical Hebrew is the alphabet of the Canaanite language which in turn was refined into the Phoenician
So now what is the Canaanite language?
First of all the name Canaanite refers to the Land
of Canaan which is modern day Israel. Canaan was the son of
is said to be the father of the Black race on earth.
Now the Phoenicians are the same
people as the Canaanites. The Greeks called the people
of Canaan, Phoenicians,
so the Old Testament/Torah was written in the language of the Phoenicians/Canaanites which today is call Hebrew.
Below is an example of the ancient Canaanite,
Phoenician and Hebrew alphabet.
The present day "square" form of the Hebrew alphabet is actually a stylized form of the Aramaic script it is not Hebrew.
The Old Testament/Torah was written in the Phoenician
alphabet script which is called the Archaic
Biblical Hebrew which
is called the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, which is read from right to left.
The Babylonian Talmud is a central text of
mainstream Judaism, in the form of a record of rabbinic
discussions pertaining to
Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history. In the Talmud their is a book called the Sefer Yetzirah, "Book of Formation,
" or "Book of Creation," in this book it states that God created the world and all things using the Hebrew Alphabet. You call read it
yourself click here. Hebrew is the Phoenician alphabet system, if it were true God created everything with the Phoenician alphabet
Introduction to the Hebrew
By Jeff A. Benner Ancient Hebrew Research Center
There are many factors
that go into a translation which are invisible and unknown to the reader of the
translation. Most Bible readers
assume the English translation of the Bible is an equivalent and exact representation of the original text. Because of the vast difference
between the Ancient Hebrews' language and our own, as well as the differences in the two cultures, an exact translation is impossible.
The difficult job of the
translator is to bridge the gap between the languages and cultures. Since one
can translate the Hebrew text
many different ways, the translator's personal beliefs will often dictate how the text is translated. A translation of the Biblical text is a
translator's interpretation of the original text based on his own theology and doctrine.
This forces the reader to
use the translator's understanding of the text as his foundation for the text.
For this reason, readers will often
compare translations, but are usually limited to Christian translations. I always recommend including a “Jewish” translation when
comparing texts, as this will give a translation from a different perspective. Yes, it will be biased toward the Jewish faith, but
Christian translations are biased toward the Christian faith as well. A comparison of the two translations can help to discover
the bias of each.
The translator's task is compounded by the presence of words and phrases whose original meanings have been lost. In these cases,
the translator will attempt to interpret the words and phrases as best as possible based on the context of the word and the translator's
opinion of what the author was attempting to convey.
When the reader of the
translation comes across the translator's attempts at translating the difficult
text, the reader almost always makes
the assumption the translator has accurately translated the text. The following passage will give an example of some of the difficulties the
translators face when attempting to convert the Hebrew text into an understandable English rendering.
Make a roof for the ark, and finish it to a cubit above; and set the door of the ark in its side; make it with lower, second, and third decks.
(Genesis 6:16 - RSV)
A quick video
overview of Hebrew
Below is an example
of what the original Old Testament/Torah text look like written in
Archaic Biblical Hebrew also known as
Paleo-Hebrew alphabet which is also know as the Phoenician alphabet which was refined from the Canaanite alphabet.
No one truly knows exactly what the text has to say! This is true, most true, without error.
According to The Oxford Companion to Archaeology:
The biblical manuscripts from Qumran, which include at least fragments from every book of the Old Testament, except perhaps
for the Book of Esther, provide a far older cross section of scriptural tradition than that available to scholars before. While some
of the Qumran biblical manuscripts are nearly identical to the Masoretic, or traditional, Hebrew text of the Old Testament,
some manuscripts of the books of Exodus and Samuel found in Cave Four exhibit dramatic differences in both language
In their astonishing range of textual variants, the Qumran biblical discoveries have prompted scholars to
reconsider the once-
accepted theories of the development of the modern biblical text from only three manuscript families: of the Masoretic text,
of the Hebrew original of the Septuagint, and of the Samaritan Pentateuch. It is now becoming increasingly clear that the Old
Testament scripture was extremely fluid until its canonization around A.D. 100.
canonization = To include in the biblical canon. The books of the Bible officially accepted as Holy Scripture.
About 35% of the Dead Sea Stroll's biblical
manuscripts belong to the Masoretic tradition (MT), 5% to the
and 5% to the Samaritan, with the remainder unaligned. The non-aligned fall into two categories, those inconsistent in agreeing
with other known types, and those that diverge significantly from all other known readings.
The contents of the Old Testament canon vary from church
to church, with the Orthodox having 51 books and the
Protestant having 39 books.
The Old Testament was translated from the Masoretic Hebrew
text, while the deuterocanonical books were translated
from the Greek Septuagint (LXX), except for 2 Esdras, which was translated from the Latin Vulgate.
The Dead Sea Scroll's contains 38 of the
exact same Books as the Old Testament, according to The Oxford
Companion to Archaeology only 35% of the books match the Dead Sea Stroll's, this leaves up to 65% of the
Old Testament with dramatic differences in both language and content.
According to The Oxford Companion to Archaeology 5% of the Septuagint match the Dead Sea Scroll's
this leaves 95% of the Septuagint with dramatic differences in both language and content.
The Masoretic Text (MT) is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible. The MT is also widely used as the basis for
translations of the Old Testament in Protestant Bibles, and in recent years (since 1943) also for some Catholic Bibles.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | 2008 |
Septuagint [Lat.,=70], oldest extant Greek
translation of the Hebrew Bible made by Hellenistic Jews, possibly
c.250 BC Legend, according to the fictional letter of Aristeas, records that it was done in 72 days by 72 translators for Ptolemy
Philadelphus, which accounts for the name. The Greek form was later improved and altered to include the books of the Apocrypha
and some of the pseudepigrapha. It was the version used by Hellenistic Jews and the Greek-speaking Christians, including
St. Paul; it is still used in the Greek Church. The Septuagint is of importance to critics because it is translated from texts now lost.
No copy of the original translation exists; textual difficulties abound. The symbol for the Septuagint is LXX.
Pseudepigrapha [Gr.,= things falsely ascribed], a collection of early Jewish and some Jewish-Christian writings composed between
c.200 BC and c. AD 200, not found in the Bible or rabbinic writings. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2008
Columbia University Press.
The term Tetragrammaton (from Greek, meaning "[a word] having four letters") refers to the Hebrew name of the God of Israel,
YHWH used in the Hebrew Bible.
The Tetragrammaton occurs 6,828 times in the Old
Testament, many of the Dead Sea
Scrolls write the Tetragrammaton
in paleo-Hebrew script which is the Phoenician characters.
YHWH is a transliteration, these four letters are usually transliterated from Hebrew as IHVH in Latin, JHWH in German, French
and Dutch, and JHVH/YHWH in English. This has been variously rendered as "Yahweh" or as "Jehovah".
transliterated: is the practice of converting a text from one writing system into another in a systematic way.
With this knowledge you will drive away all shadows and blindness.
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